Hajj (হজ্ব) is a special provision of Allah. Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. Hajj is obligatory on financially and physically able men and women. On the other hand, the literal meaning of Umrah (উমরাহ্) is religious deeds, worship, happiness, service, stability, life, antiquity, architectural installation, receipt, reception, pilgrimage or desire. He who performs Umrah is called Mutamir. The specific activities of Umrah are Ihram, Tawaf and Sai, Halak, Qasr etc. The designated places for Umrah are Kaaba Sharif, Safa-Marwa etc. It is Sunnah for the Afaqi, that is, the one who performs Umrah, to visit the Rawza Sharif of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Madinah Munawwara.
Fard and Wajib of Umrah
Two Fard (ফরজ—religious duty commanded by God): (1) Wearing Ihram (2) Tawaf
Two Wajibs: (1) Standing seven times between Safa and Marwa (green light) (2) Hair
Umrah, to explain…
The word umrah means to visit or meet. In the language of Islam, visiting the Holy Kaaba at any time other than during the holy Hajj is called Umrah. The infinite mercy of Allah Almighty that He has given us the opportunity to perform Umrah at any time of the year. The holy Hajj can be performed only in the month of Zil-hajj. But Umrah can be performed at any time. Especially in the holy month of Ramadan, there is a special virtue of performing Umrah. Many people perform Umrah before performing Hajj again. After that he performed Hajj in the same Ihram.
Every year, Muslims from all over the world travel to the holy city of Mecca. Their purpose is to gain the pleasure of Allah by performing Umrah. Narrated from Hazrat Abu Hurairah.
However, there are several rules for performing Umrah. All these rules must be followed. Moreover, the possibility of Umrah not being accepted may remain. But sadly, many of us do not know these rules properly or are indifferent. So the purpose of our article today is to discuss the essential rules of performing Umrah.
Fard Of Umrah
Now we will briefly explain these duties and obligations.
The word ihram literally means haram or forbidden. In the language of Islam, Ihram means wearing certain clothes and entering for the purpose of performing Hajj or Umrah with intention and talbiyah, accepting that even seemingly halal acts are forbidden. Men will perform Ihram by wearing two white sheets prepared for Ihram and women by wearing their normal clothes.
There are several obligatory acts before Ihram. These are:
- All kinds of physical cleanliness must be achieved before Ihram. Such as cutting the nails of the hands and feet, cleaning the hair of the mustache, hair and navel etc.
- It is sunnat to take a bath before Ihram.
- After that, men should perform Ihram by wearing seamless clothes and women should wear any suitable clothes.
- After bathing, one should perform ablution and perform 2 rak’ats of nafl prayer.
- The intention of Umrah should be done before or after Miqat.
- After that you have to read Talbiyah
“Labbaik Allahumma labbaik. Labbaik la sharika laka labbaik. Innal-hamda wa-nimata laka wal-mulk, la sharika laka.”
The Meaning of Talbiyah is, “I respond to Your call O Allah! I respond to Your call. You have no partner. I respond to Your call. All praise, thanks and blessings are for You. All sovereignty is for You. And You have no partners with You).'”
- Men should recite talbiyah in a loud voice and women in a low voice.
Prohibited acts after entering Ihram
There are some things that are forbidden after Ihram. Apparently, many halal activities will also be banned. These are:
- Use any sewn cloth or shoes, in this case sponge sandals should be used.
- Cover the head and face (by any cloth including the cloth of Ihram).
- Wearing shoes that cover the back of the foot.
- Haircut or tearing.
- Nail cut.
- Applying scented oil or perfume.
- To have intercourse with the wife.
- Any sexual arousal or speech.
- To hunt.
- To quarrel or fight.
- Combing the hair or moving the finger, so that there is a risk of tearing.
- Applying soap on the body.
- To kill any animal including lice, beetles, mosquitoes and flies.
- To commit any kind of sin.
#2. Tawaf of the Holy Kaaba
The word tawaf literally means to visit or circumambulate. In the language of Islam, following certain rules, wearing certain clothes and going around the Ka’bah to attain the pleasure of Allah is called Tawaf.
There are some rules that must be followed before performing Tawaf. These are:
- Intention to circumambulate.
- To circumambulate the holy Qaba seven times non-stop.
- To be pure (to perform ablution (Wudu) or bath).
- Wearing Cloths According to the rules.
- Tawaf in the footsteps of a competent person.
- Circumambulation with the Kaaba to the left.
- Tawaf with Hatim outside.
- Perform two rak’ats of prayer at the end of Tawaf.
- Starting every round of Tawaf from Hajar Aswad.
- Kissing, touching or gesturing with the hands of Hajar al-Aswad.
- Ijtibah and Ramal in the circumambulation of the performer of Umrah.
- Touching Rukun Yameni in every round, if not possible, pointing and reciting Doa.
Rules of Tawaf
If it is not possible to kiss Hajar Aswad, one should start Tawaf by gesturing and saying Bismillahi Allahu Akbar. In Rukun, from Yemeni to Hazrat Aswad, one has to recite – ‘Rabbana Atina Fidduniya Hasanatao Wa Phil Akhirate Hasanatao Wa Kina Ajabannar’.
If Hajar Aswad is accompanied again and again , then according to the previous rule, one should raise the right hand and recite Takbeer and start the second circumambulation. Thus seven rounds have to be completed in the same manner. Thus the Tawaf must be completed.
After completing the Tawaf, the right shoulder should be covered. After that, two rak’ats of prayer should be performed behind Maqam Ibrahim. After that you have to drink Zamzam water. Zamzam water should be drunk while standing and while drinking it should be said – ‘Allahumma inni asaluka ilman nafi’a, wariyakbao wasi’a, washifaam min qulli da’i’ (O Allah! Give me useful knowledge! Give me enough sustenance! All! Donate the healer of the disease).
Wajib of Umrah
I have already said that there are two wajibs of Umrah – Sa’i (Safa & Marwa) and shaving the head.
What is meant by sai is a quick walk between the holy Safa and the Marwa hills. When Hazrat Hajra, the wife of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) and mother of Hazrat Ishmael (AS), was looking for water for her infant son, she used to come and go between Safa and Marwa mountains 7 times. The Almighty loves this walk so much that He instructs it to be performed as a part of Hajj and Umrah.
The rule of Sai
One should come to the mountain of Safa and make the intention and recite from the Holy Quran Majid –
“إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ۚ وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ Indeed, Safa and Marwa are among the symbols of Allah. So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs Umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good – then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.” [Surah al-Baqarah, 2:158]
On the Mount of Safa, one should recite the words of the greatness, majesty and Tawheed of the Almighty.
‘La ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lahu
lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu
yuhyee wa yumeetu
wa huwal hayyu la yamootu
bi yadi hil khair,
wa huwa ‘ala kulli shai’in Qadeer’.
“There is none worthy of worship besides Allah. He is all by Himself. He has no partner. His is the Kingdom, to Him is all praise. He gives and takes life. He is all by Himself. He will not die. In His hands is all good and He has control (power) over all things”.
La ilaha illallahu wahdahu anjaza wa’dahu, wa nasara ‘abdahu, wa hazamal-ahzaba wahdahu.
(There is no god but Allah Alone, Who fulfilled His promise and confirmed the truthfulness of His slave and defeated the opponents Himself.)
This is one of the places where Doa is accepted. The men have to walk fast between the two green lights (not applicable for women) as soon as they go downhill from Safa hill and recite this Doa – “Rabbi-ghfir warham wa’fu ‘amma ta’lam wa antal-a’azul-akram”. There is no specific Doa for Sai. Arriving at Marwa hill, Doa and Tasbeeh should be recited in the same way as Tasbeeh was recited at Safa hill. Then, after coming down from Marwa and reaching Safa again, one has to walk fast between the two green lights and recite the previous Doa. Thus the walk number seven or sai will end at Marwa hill.
#2. Shaving the head (halak) or trimming the hair (kosar)
This duty is to be performed as the last step of Umrah. At the end of the day, men will shave their heads or cut their hair short. Women should cut half a finger from the tip of their hair. Through this work, Umrah will be completed with all the obligations and duties of Umrah. After that you can wear normal clothes and go back to normal life.
The difference between Hajj and Umrah
There are many differences between Hajj and Umrah. This difference is mainly between importance and method.
- Hajj is obligatory for every physically fit and financially able Muslim. On the other hand, it is sunnat to perform Umrah.
- Hajj can be performed only at a specific time but Umrah can be performed at any time of the year. However, it is makrooh to perform Umrah from 9 Zilhajj to 13 Zilhajj.
- Hajj includes the position of Arafat and Muzdalifah, the two prayers at the same time, and the khutbah, and the tawaf of Qudum and the tawaf of bid’ah, but the umrah includes the rules.
- Rami (throwing stones) at Jamratul Aqbah during Hajj is waived. And at the beginning of Tawaf in Umrah, recitation of Talbiyah is waived.
- If the Hajj is canceled for any reason, it has to be completed again next year, but if the Umrah is canceled or the Tawaf is performed in the state of Janabat (the impurity by which bathing is obligatory), it is sufficient to slaughter a goat or a sheep.
To know more about Umrah in Bangla, please see the Govt. official website from here.
Performing Umrah is an important (Sunnat) circumcision. This applies to both men and women. There is no provision that Hajj becomes obligatory after performing Umrah. I hope you have got all the information and ideas about Umrah. May Allah Almighty grant us all the grace to perform Umrah in the right way, Ameen.